Indian Income Tax
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Silent Features Of VAT

  1. Rate of Tax VAT proposes to impose two types of rate of tax mainly:
    • 4% on declared goods or the goods commonly used.
    • 10-12% on goods called Revenue Neutral Rates (RNR). There would be no fall in such remaining goods.
    • Two special rates will be imposed-- 1% on silver or gold and 20% on liquor. Tax on petrol, diesel or aviation turbine fuel are proposed to be kept out from the VAT system as they would be continued to be taxed, as presently applicable by the CST Act.
  2. Uniform Rates in the VAT system, certain commodities are exempted from tax. The taxable commodities are listed in the respective schedule with the rates. VAT proposes to keep these rates uniform in all the states so the goods sold or purchased across the country would suffer the same tax rate. Discretion has been given to the states when it comes to finalizing the RNR along with the restrictions. This rate must not be less than 10%. This will ensure By doing this that there will be level playing fields to avoid the trade diversion in connection with the different states, particularly in neighbouring states
  3. No concession to new industries Tax Concessions to new industries is done away with in the new VAT system. This was done as it creates discrepancy in investment decision. Under the new VAT system, the tax would be fair and equitable to all.
  4. Adjustment of the tax paid on the goods purchased from the tax payable on the goods of sale All the tax, paid on the goods purchased within the state, would be adjusted against the tax, payable on the sale, whether within the state or in the course of interstate. In case of export, the tax, paid on purchase outside India, would be refunded. In case of the branch transfer or consignment of sale outside the state, no refund would be provided.
  5. Collection of tax by seller/dealer at each stage. The seller/dealer would collect the tax on the full price of the goods sold and shows separately in the sell invoice issued by him
  6. VAT is not cascading or additive though the tax on the goods sold is collected at each stage, it is not cascading or additive because the net effect would be as follows: - the tax, previously paid on the sale of goods, would be fully adjusted. It will be like levying tax on goods, sold in the last state or at retail stage.

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Advantages Of VAT

  1. Simplification Under the CST Act, there are 8 types of tax rates- 1%, 2%, 4%, 8%, 10%, 12%, 20% and 25%. However, under the present VAT system, there would only be 2 types of taxes 4% on declared goods and 10-12% on RNR. This will eliminate any disputes that relate to rates of tax and classification of goods as this is the most usual cause of litigation. It also helps to determine the relevant stage of the tax. This is necessary as the CST Act stipulates that the tax levies at the first stage or the last stage differ. Consequently, the question of which stage of tax it falls under becomes another reason for litigation. Under the VAT system, tax would be levied at each stage of the goods of sale or purchase.
  2. Adjustment of tax paid on purchased goods Under the present system, the tax paid on the manufactured goods would be adjusted against the tax payable on the manufactured goods. Such adjustment is conditional as such goods must either be manufactured or sold. VAT is free from such conditions.
  3. Further such adjustment of the purchased goods would depend on the amount of tax that is payable. VAT would not have such restrictions. CST would not have the provisions on refund or carry over upon such goods except in case of export goods or goods, manufactured out of the country or sale to registered dealer. Similarly, on interstate sale on tax-paid goods, no refund would be admissible.
  4. Transparency The tax that is levied at the first stage on the goods or sale or purchase is not transparent. This is because the amount of tax, which the goods have suffered, is not known at the subsequent stage. In the VAT system, the amount of tax would be known at each and every stage of goods of sale or purchase.
  5. Fair and Equitable VAT introduces the uniform tax rates across the state so that unfair advantages cannot be taken while levying the tax.
  6. Procedure of simplification Procedures, relating to filing of returns, payment of tax, furnishing declaration and assessment are simplified under the VAT system so as to minimize any interface between the tax payer and the tax collector.
  7. Minimize the Discretion the VAT system proposes to minimize the discretion with the assessing officer so that every person is treated alike. For example, there would be no discretion involved in the imposition of penalty, late filing of returns, non-filing of returns, late payment of tax or non payment of tax or in case of tax evasion. Such system would be free from all these harassment
  8. Computerization the VAT proposes computerization which would focus on the tax evaders by generating Exception Report. In a large number of cases, no processing or scrutiny of returns would be required as it would free the tax compliant dealers from all the harassment which is so much a part of assessment. The management information system, which would form a part of integral computerization, would make the tax department more efficient and responsive.

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